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Rulers of Goa
Impressionistic designation of the centuries

Geopolitical and political instability – this is a common factor which characterizes both the beginning and the end of Goa’s second millennium. In the political history of Deccan, the second millennium ( 1000-2000 ) has been of a constant flux, transition, change and transformation.

 This millennium in Goa can be labeled as a millennium of cosmopolitan and cultural amalgamation. It was in the 11th century that the process of cosmopolitanism began with the advent of the Goa Kadamba rule. It was carried on intensively through the early part of the Portuguese rule.

 

Potters were Goa's earliest artisans
[Pottery]
[Rural Life]
This painting illustrates the Goan preoccupation with rural life

[Basilica]
Basilica of Bom Jesus, Old Goa.

[Tambdi Surla]
Ancient temple at Tambdi Surla, Goa

The second millennium dawned in Goa as a period of turmoil. The Shilahara power was waning.  The Arab merchants were controlling the trans-oceanic trade. They had firmly established themselves in the island of Tiswadi and enjoyed considerable autonomy from their regional masters, the South Konkan branch of the Shilaharas. Their trading colony on the island, identified as ‘Hanjamannagara’ attracted the attention of the Kadambas of Goa, then ruling from Chandrapur ( modern Chandor ). The first stable ruler of Goa Kadamba dynasty, Guhulladeva I entered into a profitable alliance with Tiswadi’s Muslim settlers and thus began the foundation of a secular, cosmopolitan political-economic partnership at the beginning of the second millennium.

 The imperial Rastrakutas had become weak. The Chalukyas of Kalyani were arming themselves to attack and deal a final blow to the crumbling Rastrakutas. The Goa Kadambas exploited this situation to their advantage. Shasthadeva II consolidated his position on the west coast. By the end of the 11th century we find Goa Kadambas firmly planting themselves in Goa and Konkan.

 The most important year of the first century in the second millennium is A.D 1054 – the foundation of Gopaka-pattana or Goapuri – the capital of Goa Kadambas. For the next 300 years this place became a nucleus of intra-coastal and trans-oceanic trade. From east Africa to Malaya , Goa became a known destination. The name and fame of Goapuri reached its zenith during the 12th century despite a period of political flux.

Guhalldeva III, Jayakeshi II, Shivachitta, Vishnuchitta and Jayakeshi III dominated Goa’s political scene during the 12th century. At the beginning of the 13th century the Hoysalas were aiming at Goa and the Kakachuris and Yadavas were interested in the wealth of Goapuri. After the death of Jayakeshi III in 1212 A.D, the Kadambas had to yield before the Yadavas of Devagiri. For 12 years the Yadavas kept the Kadambas out of throne. The 13th century is marked by the weakening of the Kadamba state. The Muslim influence was percolating in the Deccan. The Yadavas carried out a sustained campaign against former Chalukya feudatories. Between 1265 –1277 several battles were fought . The Shilaharas of Thana were defeated. The Yadavas established a puppet kingdom in Goa appointing Kamdeva who somehow managed to survive till 1313 A.D

Muslim invasions from the north mark the beginning of a new chapter in the 14ht century Goa. The Kadambas lost power by A.D 1334 and many minor dynasties proliferated in the Deccan.

[Adil Shah]
 All that remains of Adil Shah

Between 1334 and 1350 A.D, Goa passed though a period of chaos. The Bahamanis annexed Goa around 1350 A.D and continued to hold it till 1380 A.D. During these 30 years, Goa passed though a frenzy of religious persecution and the proselytizing zeal of iconoclastic Bahamanis. The Vijayanagara emperor , Harihara II seems to have rescued Goa from total anarchy in 1380 A.D. The 14th century closes uneventfully in Goa – and nothing worthwhile happened till 1454 A.D as the Vijayanagara rulers appointed governors to rule over Goa and enjoyed the prosperity of the port city as Ella.

This was the period of booming trade in horses and spices. Between 1454 to 1471, the Vijayanagara emperors relaxed their hold over Goa giving importance to loyal local chieftains. Mahmud Gawan marched to annex Goa on 11th Febraury 1471, thus ending another chapter and starting a new one. At the end of the 15th century, Goa came under Adilshahi rule. A new port town was founded on the banks of the Mandovi river. The fame of Goa reached Afonso de Alburquerque who after two attempts conquered it on 25th November 1510.

 The 16th century was most eventful in South Asian history with the presence of the Portuguese. It was a century of establishment of Moghul rule in India, Estado da India and import of new armaments, printing press and western knowledge.

The period from 1541 to 1565  was most tragic for the Goa population. The Vijayanagara empire was lost in 1565 A.D. The inquisition severely impacted the social, cultural and economic aspects of life in Goa. This was a century of exodus of Goans. The end of the 16th century witnessed the arrival of the British; and the dawn of the 17th century saw more colonial players fighting for control of sea-borne trade. The 17th century boosted Old Goa city as a center of urbanism.

 Till the end of Dutch blockade, Old Goa occupied a key position in South Asia. The 17th century ends with the rise of Maratha power in the Deccan and suddenly the Portuguese faced a new adversary. At the beginning of the 18th century the Portuguese lost Bassein, and that proved to be a severe blow to their expansionist dreams. The Peshwas continually harassed the Portuguese. The 18th century was marked by reforms of Pombal and the integration of the New Conquest talukas , Pernem, Bicholim, Sattari, Canacona, Sanguem, Quepem by the Portuguese by 1788. The 18th century could therefore be termed as the century of Goa’s geopolitical reintegration.

 The War of Independence and the French Revolution influenced a section of Goa’s elite. Revolt by the Pintos in 1787 paved the way for revolts by the Ranes in the 19th century. The 19th century was again a very eventful century, a century marked by the revolts of the Ranes, the signing of the Anglo-Portuguese Treaty and the coming of railways, post and telegraph and birth of Goan journalism. It was also a century of bullying by the British. The 19th century was also remarkable for the rise of a political class and constitutional reforms. In terms of overall impact, the 19th century could be compared to the 11th and 16th centuries.

 The 20th century began with a welcome development for Goa. The period of Republic(1910-1926) in Portugal brought a mini-renaissance in Goa. The foundation for Goa’s freedom struggle was laid during these 16 reformist years. Considering the three important phases of political transformation during this century the period of freedom struggle ( 1946 – 1961), the Union- territorial period (1961-1987) and the post-statehood period – this century could be called as a century of liberation,empowerment,enlightenment and experimentation. It was also a century of radical urbanization of the state of Goa.

Rulers of Goa

Years

Ruler

970-1000 A.D

Avasara III of South Konkan Shilaharas.

1000-1334 A.D

Kadambas of Goa ( 14 kings )

1334-1350

Goa under local feudatories

1350-1380

Rule of the Bahamanis ( Hasan Gangu)

1380-1454

Rule of the Vijayanagara governors

1454-1471

Rule by Bankapur chiefs.

1471-1489

Rule of Sultan of Bijapore

1489-1510

Yusuf Adilshaha rules over Goa.

25th Nov 1510

Conquest of Goa by Alburquerque

1501-1543

Portuguese rule over a limited territory of Goa, mostly Tiswadi Islands.

1543-1783

Portuguese acquire Bardez and Salcete from Ibrahim Adilshah.

1783

Portuguese Annex Pernem

1788-1791

Portuguese rule extended over entire Goa.

19th Dec. 1961

Liberation of Goa

1962-1987

Union Territory administration

30th May 1987

State administration

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Impressionistic designation of centuries

Century,Year

Description

11th,1000-1100

A century of cosmopolitanism and prosperous maritime trade under the Kadambas of Goa.

12th,1100-1200

A century of South Indian cultural diffusion impacting Goa.

13th,1200-1300

A century of Islamic impact and military setbacks.

14th,1300-1400

A century of Hindu revival under the Vijayanagara emperors.

15th,1400-1500

A century of renewed urbanism with Muslim impact

16th,1500-1600

A century of religious persecution and exodus of Goans

17th ,1600-1700

A century of booming maritime trade and import of novelties

18th,1700-1800

A century of local revolts and territorial reintegration of Goa

19th,1800-1900

A century of reforms,communications and political revival.

20th,1900-2000

A century of liberation, empowerment, self rule

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